Even if the Bill passes and gains royal assent, the provinces have told the federal government they would need 8 to 12 weeks to allow for a smooth transition to legalized cannabis.The plan as presented would have meant the launch of the City’s online consultation on Wednesday, May 23rd, with two Dotmocracy engagement meetings being held this week. Ackerman said that postponing the targeted date of the City’s proposed bylaws and rules will allow the City to not rush the public consultation process, especially one that discusses such an important change.The resolution as passed by Council did also add that the City would take feedback from residents on locations in Fort St. John where smoking of cannabis could be banned.As announced by the provincial government, smoking or vaping of recreational cannabis would be allowed anywhere tobacco and e-cigarettes are currently allowed. Those rules also say that smoking cannabis would not allowed anywhere children would reasonably be expected to be, including near parks, schools, playgrounds, or beaches.The City will also be getting feedback from the RCMP, the B.C. Chamber of Commerce, Northern Health, and School Districts about allowed locations for cannabis retail operations.Council also voted down the first draft of a proposed bylaw, deciding to wait until the end of the public consultation process, which should be starting some time next month. The City says that dates for public consultations will announced in the near future. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. — Fort St. John City Council has voted in favour of an extended public consultation plan with residents regarding the regulation of cannabis retail operations in the City. On Tuesday, councillors voted in favour of extending consultations with residents with the plan to have a bylaw adopted by the beginning of August, and not July 1st as originally requested by Council last week. Mayor Lori Ackerman, who was not present at the Council meeting on May 14th when councillors asked staff to get the bylaw and consultations done by the end of June, pointed out that the federal bill legalizing cannabis, Bill C-45, will only be going through third reading in the Senate on June 7th.
Rabat – Morocco is “a model in the region”, thanks to the large-scale reforms implemented by the Kingdom and its commitment to sustainable development, protection of the environment and development of renewable energy, the president of the German Bundesrat, Stanislaw Tillich, said here on Thursday.“The Kingdom of Morocco is a very important partner for us, thanks to its commitment to socio-economic and political reforms, and its pioneering role in sustainable development, protection of the environment and promotion of renewable energy,” he told reporters following talks with speaker of the House of Advisors (Upper house), Hakim Benchamach.The evolution witnessed by Morocco and progressive reforms in various areas are the key guarantor of stability and security for the country in particular and for the region in general, he added. Tillich has also called for strengthening cooperation between Germany and Morocco and developing strategic partnership between the two countries.The German official hailed Morocco’s commitment to improve the management of migration flows.In his turn, Benchamach said all the conditions are met to develop further Moroccan-German relations and establish a comprehensive strategic partnership.The Moroccan official proposed the launch of a Moroccan-German parliamentary dialogue in the framework of a parliamentary forum.The Bundesrat is one of the five constitutional bodies in Germany. The federal states participate through the Bundesrat in the legislation and administration of the Federation.With MAP
Rabat – King Mohammed VI received, Tuesday at the Royal Palace in Casablanca, the president and members of the Constitutional Court, whom the Sovereign named to their new positions, said a statement by the Royal Office. The King appointed Said Ihrai as president of the Constitutional Court.Saadia Belmir, El Hassan Boukantar, Abdelahad Dekkak, Ahmed Salmi El Idrissi and Mohamed Atarkine as members of the Court, named by the King. Mohamed Ben Abdessadak, Moulay Abdelaziz Hafidi Alaoui and Mohamed Lamrini, as members of the Court, elected by the House of Representatives.Mohamed Al Ansari, Nadir Moumni and Mohamed Jaouhari, as members of the Court, elected by the House of Advisors.The installation by King Mohammed VI of this constitutional institution takes place in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, in particular Article 130, and the Organic Law relating to the Constitutional Court.The rank of this institution was thus elevated from Constitutional Council to Constitutional Court, with broad and advanced prerogatives.During this audience, the president and members of the Constitutional Court took oath before the King, in accordance with the provisions of the Organic Law relating to this Court.It is worth to mention that Mohamed Atarkine, who was unable to attend, had already taken oath before the King.
5 July 2007The United Nations today dedicated a newly constructed school in Liberia at a ceremony attended by Sarah, the Duchess of York, who called for continued attention to the country as it solidifies stability after years of conflict. She told participants at the event in Perry Town, Montserrado County, that Liberia is now at peace and “should not be forgotten” because of the present preoccupation with ongoing conflicts elsewhere.The Duchess of York noted that the Liberian Government is “determined to make a difference and get the country back to its former condition through training and educating its children and young people.”The Duchess, who has been in Liberia for two days discussing ways of providing humanitarian assistance to the country, held meetings with officials from the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) and the Government as well as representatives of civil society organizations. At the ceremony, UNMIL’s Officer-in-Charge Jordan Ryan advocated “a nationwide campaign so that everyone in Liberia would be able to read and write.”Mr. Ryan emphasized the importance of education for women and girls. “Every woman who voted with a thumb in the last election should be able to sign her name in the next,” he said. The Sean Devereux Community School was built through an initiative by UNMIL’s “Quick Impact Projects” to accommodate more than 300 children and to provide skills training for men and women of the community, the mission said in a news release.It was established in memory of Mr. Devereux, a former missionary and UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) staff member who lost his life in the service of peace in Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1993. He had previously worked in Liberia for more than four years.
However he warned their actions will boomerang on them and they will face the consequences in the hands of the public. The State Minister said that the GMOA was misusing the freedom it has been given by the unity Government. The Government Medical Officers’ Association (GMOA) was today warned by the Government to be prepared to face the wrath of the public.State Minister of International Trade Sujeewa Senasinghe said some Government doctors are using their profession to engage in politics and stage protests. “Not all doctors. Some doctors are good and there are others who are bad,” he said.Senasinghe also said that the law is equal to all and anyone can be arrested if they violate the law. (Colombo Gazette)
Last week, the FAO Council had accepted a proposal from the Italian Government to move out of Rome the part of the FAO Conference from 5 to 9 November 2001, which includes the global Summit and related events, the agency said in a statement issued in Rome. After considering several alternate locations, the Italian government had proposed that the meeting be moved to Rimini. The proposal was then submitted to the 48 member countries of the FAO Council, which concurred.The Summit was called for by the FAO Council last year when it became clear that the original Summit goal of cutting the number of hungry in half by the year 2015 would not be met without renewed effort.In light of recent global events and a worsening economic picture, FAO believes the plight of the hungry may grow ever worse, requiring a major recommitment from all States to press forward to reduce the number of hungry people in the world.
by Derek Gatopoulos, The Associated Press Posted Dec 8, 2014 12:18 pm MDT Greece’s conservatives gamble survival on early presidential vote as bailout extended AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to RedditRedditShare to 電子郵件Email ATHENS, Greece – Greece’s conservative-led government on Monday called for a key vote in parliament for the country’s new president late this month — in a surprise move that will determine its survival in the recession-weary country.Government spokesman Sofia Voultepsi said the vote would be held Dec. 17, with possible later rounds held in the following 12 days. The vote had not been expected to be held until late February.The government needs the support from opposition lawmakers to avoid a stalemate and a snap general election, but is trailing in opinion polls to the anti-bailout Syriza party and facing widespread public discontent after a six-year recession.The move was announced within an hour of Eurozone bailout lenders backing a Greek request to extend the rescue lending program for another two months.Voultepsi said the presidential vote was shifted so Greece would be in a stronger position to negotiate with the lenders, who have provided €240 billion ($294 billion) in rescue funds in return for draconian spending cuts.“The political uncertainty must end now,” Voultepsi said.Under voting rules, parliament requires a super-majority to elect a president, whose role is largely ceremonial, for a five-year term.A presidential candidate must receive 200 votes in the 300-seat parliament to get elected, with a second round that would be held on Dec. 23 still requiring 200 votes, and a final third round on Dec. 29 needing 180.Conservative Prime Minister Antonis Samaras’ pro-bailout coalition has 155 lawmakers. It hasn’t yet named a candidate to succeed 85-year-old Karolos Papoulias, whose second term expires in March.“We are not surprised with this move. The government is running out of options, and wants to hide more austerity being demanded by (lenders) from the people,” Syriza spokesman Panos Skourletis told the AP.“They haven’t got the 180 votes. And an earlier general election is welcome for us,” Skourletis said. “Basically, the government just took a jump off the cliff.”___AP Writer Demetris Nellas in Athens contributed.___Follow Gatopoulos at http://www.twitter.com/dgatopoulos
The Faculty of Applied Health Sciences has submitted a Statement of Intent that it wishes to introduce a new undergraduate program.As part of the approval process outlined in the Institutional Quality Assurance Process (IQAP), the Statement is being made available for the information of the University community, to allow the opportunity for comment prior to moving to the next step in the internal quality assurance process.Please view the Statement of Intent here. The posting will remain in place for 21 days — until 4:30 p.m. on Jan. 29, 2018.Comments on the above proposal must be submitted by Jan. 29, 2018 by email to the addresses provided below. In submitting your response, please include the new program title in the subject line.Please send comments to the Academic Review Committee via the Vice-Chair Greg Finn, and the Associate Dean, Undergraduate Studies in the Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Nancy Francis.
A man accused of stabbing a train passenger to death sat on the floor of the dock and claimed he was hearing voices when he appeared in court yesterday.Darren Pencille, 35, claimed he felt “paranoid” when he appeared at Staines magistrates’ court, charged with stabbing Lee Pomeroy, an IT consultant, nine times.Wearing a grey tracksuit and black thick-rimmed glasses, Mr Pencille initially stood, flanked by two guards in the dock.He spoke to give his date of birth and nationality and told the court he had no fixed address.But then he dropped to the floor of the dock, telling the magistrates: “People are making me paranoid. Can I just talk to you like this?”Turning to the public gallery, which was packed with journalists, he said: “The people are making me paranoid They look like they are filming, recording me for no reason.” He added: “I’m paranoid. I’m hearing voices.”He did not enter pleas and Helen Mattey, the chairman of the bench, remanded him in custody.Mr Pencille is accused of attacking Mr Pomeroy at lunchtime on Friday. The pair allegedly got into a row as they boarded a train at Guildford’s London Road station.Mr Pomeroy is thought to have followed Mr Pencille from one carriage into another one before being stabbed. Darren Pencille (left) accused of stabbing Lee Pomeroy (right) to death on a train from Guildford to LondonCredit:PA/Elizabeth Cook Chelsea Mitchell, Mr Pencille’s girlfriend, also appeared in court charged with assisting him following the incident by picking him up in her car and helping him change his appearance.Miss Mitchell denied the charge, with the court told she would claim she did not know what Mr Pencille had allegedly done.The couple were arrested at an address in Farnham on Saturday morning, around 16 hours after the attack on the train.Following their appearance at magistrates’ court, the pair were taken separately to Guildford Crown Court where they both made a brief appearance.Mr Pencille spoke to confirm his name and was remanded in custody until Feb 7. Miss Mitchell appeared in the same court, around five minutes later. She smiled at friends in the public gallery before again only speaking to confirm her name. Want the best of The Telegraph direct to your email and WhatsApp? Sign up to our free twice-daily Front Page newsletter and new audio briefings. There was no application for bail and she was remanded in custody to appear before Guildford Crown Court on the same date. Mr Pomeroy, who would have celebrated his 52nd birthday the day after the attack, had been heading to London to spend some “quality time” with his son, who cradled him as he lay dying.He was described by his family as “an honourable man and would always help somebody who was in trouble”.In a statement, the family said he was a cultured man, who loved his wife Svetlana Pomeroy (50). “He was a devoted family man and did everything for his family,” they said.
New Brunswick is the world’s most attractive jurisdiction for mineral exploration and development in the view of the international mining industry, according to the Survey of Mining Companies: 2011/2012, by the Fraser Institute. “New Brunswick shot to the top of the rankings as miners lauded the province for its fair, transparent, and efficient legal system and consistency in the enforcement and interpretation of existing environmental regulations,” said Fred McMahon, Fraser Institute VP of international policy research and co-ordinator of the survey. “Combine that with a competitive taxation regime and minimal uncertainty around disputed land claims and New Brunswick has emerged as a superstar in the view of global mining.”New Brunswick vaulted to first place from 23rd last year, unseating Alberta at the top of the global rankings as that province fell to third overall. Quebec, which enjoyed a three-year reign at No. 1 from 2007 to 2010, continued to lose support among mining executives as it fell to fifth place from fourth in 2011.“Quebec’s reputation floundered over the past two years due to uncertainty around royalty increases and proposed changes to the provincial mining act. Miners prefer to do business in New Brunswick and Alberta, where mining policy is clear and the government resource-friendly,” McMahon said.This year, Saskatchewan fell to sixth place from third, while Manitoba dropped out of the top 10 altogether, plummeting to 20th position after ranking ninth last year.“Respondents blasted Manitoba for its mishandling of First Nations consultations, which they say creates excessive delays in processing permits and licenses. That’s damaged the province’s reputation and is reflected in the rankings,” McMahon said.The survey is based on the opinions of mining executives representing 802 mineral exploration and development companies on the investment climate of 93 jurisdictions around the world (new additions this year include Missouri, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Guyana, Laos, Mauritania, Morocco, Poland, Suriname, and eight provinces of Argentina). The companies participating in the survey reported exploration spending of $6.3 billion in 2011 and $4.5 billion in 2010.Canadian jurisdictions claimed five of the top 10 spots this year. Joining New Brunswick, Alberta, Quebec, and Saskatchewan in the 10 is the Yukon territory, which jumped to 10th from 15th last year, earning it the distinction of being the first of Canada’s territories ever to achieve a top-10 ranking in the survey.The remaining provinces and territories fared well overall, with Ontario placing 13th, Nova Scotia 15th, Newfoundland and Labrador 16th, Manitoba 20th, British Columbia 31st, Nunavut 36th, and the Northwest Territories 48th.Worldwide, the top 10 jurisdictions are New Brunswick, Finland, Alberta, Wyoming, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Sweden, Nevada, Ireland, and the Yukon. Seven of the same jurisdictions ranked among the top 10 last year; newcomers include New Brunswick, Ireland (which jumped to ninth from 16th), and the Yukon, replacing Manitoba. Utah (fell to 21st from sixth), and Chile (dropped to 18th from eighth).“Chile had been the only jurisdiction outside of North America to consistently rank among the top 10 since the inception of the survey. It has been replaced by Sweden and Finland, which have now been in the top 10 for the past three years,” McMahon.“The presence of these Nordic countries among the world’s most preferred mining jurisdictions shows that environmental stewardship and natural resource development can go hand in hand.”The bottom 10 scores went to Vietnam, Indonesia, Ecuador, Kyrgyzstan, the Philippines, India, Venezuela, Bolivia, Guatemala, and Honduras.Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, and Zimbabwe, which were among the worst-ranked jurisdictions in the 2010/2011 survey, managed to climb out of the bottom 10 this year.The report also notes that miners appear relatively pessimistic about future commodity prices, reporting that they expect level or reduced prices for silver, copper, diamonds, coal, zinc, nickel, potash, and platinum. The only exception was gold, where a vast majority of respondents expected increased prices.Reduced optimism is also reflected in miners’ investment intentions. This year, 68% of respondents said they expected to increase their exploration budgets in 2012, compared to 82% who planned to hike their exploration budgets in 2011.“The key to establishing a positive investment climate is for governments to have a clear, sensible vision for mining policy and to stick to it,” McMahon said.“By upholding the rule of law, respecting negotiated contracts and property rights, and eliminating risk with regard to tax increases and red tape, nations can attract mining investment and reap the economic and social benefits of new jobs and increased prosperity.”
Facebook Twitter: @NeosKosmos Instagram The history of the Hellenes of Sydney has finally been developed into a website for all to see and search. The website entitled “Dictionary of Sydney” took three years to produce. Dr Panayioti Diamandis, whose research and writing headed the website – alongside other contributors – said it’s more than just a website as it features rare images, links, maps, sounds, and plethora of historical information about Hellenes in Sydney. “It was an honour to be asked to produce this work and I am very excited it is now online and there for all the world to see,” said Dr Diamandis. The project has been funded to date largely from an Australian Research Council (ARC) grant with some additional support from other partners.
Honda lance une nouvelle station hydrogène solaireCalifornie – Neuf ans après le lancement de sa première station, Honda améliore son ergonomie. Une station plus compacte, qui peut être installée dans un simple garage.Voici une nouveauté pour les voitures électriques fonctionnant avec une pile à combustible : elles pourront désormais être alimentées dans le garage de leur propriétaire grâce à une petite station hydrogène solaire. L’hydrogène est produit par électrolyse, un procédé chimique qui permet de décomposer l’eau en dioxygène et dihydrogène gazeux à l’aide d’un courant électrique. Le courant électrique est produit par les panneaux solaires qui fonctionnent avec la technologie CIGD (cuivre, indium, gallium, selenium) et 48 m2 de cellules photovoltaïques. En huit heures, la station produit 0,5 kg d’hydrogène : de quoi alimenter les trajets quotidiens. Les utilisateurs pourront même recharger leur voiture la nuit car, le jour, l’énergie des panneaux solaires sera transférée vers le réseau électrique général. Ce qui diffère avec l’ancien modèle, c’est surtout la suppression du compresseur qui fait gagner 25% de rendement par rapport à la première génération. Cette station peut aussi se passer de réservoir à hydrogène. Cette station solaire est commercialisée par Honda en même temps que la première berline à hydrogène de série, la FCX Clarity. Une voiture qui garde un inconvénient majeur : le prix de la pile à combustible. Celui-ci reste en effet élevé, en raison des matériaux et du temps nécessaire à la réalisation.Le 1 février 2010 à 11:26 • Emmanuel Perrin
Top Movie and TV Trailers You Might Have Missed This WeekWatch These Movies Before ‘Hustlers’ Stay on target Netflix might have its eye on Oscar gold, as it pursues a new premiere strategy for three upcoming films: theaters first and devices last.The streaming service will introduce Susanne Bier’s thriller picture Bird Box, Alfonso Cuarón’s Mexican drama ROMA, and the Coen Brothers’ Western flick The Ballad of Buster Scruggs in select theaters before their online release dates.For those wanting to see ROMA on the biggest screen possible, select markets will be able to watch in theaters AND on Netflix. Watch for special theatrical presentations of Alfonso Cuarón’s ROMA, The Ballad of Buster Scruggs from the Coen Brothers, and Bird Box from Susanne Bier.— Netflix Film (@NetflixFilm) October 31, 2018Netflix movies rarely are shown in theaters, but when they do, Netflix will launch them on its online platform at the same time. It’s possible that the streaming service would like to venture into Oscar territory and earn a golden statuette for one of the three robust films that will debut in select theaters in November and December. Plus, this move would give filmmakers the opportunity to compete with other cinema talent on the big night.Bird Box (Photo Credit: Netflix)If you’re hoping to see these Netflix flicks on the big screen first, you might want to get your tickets now. ROMA, which will be shown in select theaters in Los Angeles, Mexico, and New York and come to Netflix on Dec. 21, will have the largest gap between its cinema premiere and online release. The Ballad of Buster Scruggs will have a short theater run starting Nov. 8, which is eight days before it hits Netflix on Nov. 16. Finally, Bird Box will be first shown at select theaters on Dec. 13 and be available on Netflix on Dec. 21.“These upcoming engagements are following the success of our theatrical and Netflix releases of Private Life and 22 July,” Scott Stuber, head of Netflix’s film group, said in a statement. “Netflix’s priority is our members and our filmmakers, and we are constantly innovating to serve them.”More on Geek.com:MovieBob’s Favorite Classic Scary Movies (That Aren’t Actually Scary)11 Superhero Movies Still Stuck in Development HellThe Best Action Movies on Netflix Streaming
Inter Milan captain Mauro Icardi feels that Gonzalo Higuain is the missing piece of the jigsaw that AC Milan have been missing over the yearsThe first Milan derby of the season between Inter and AC will take place on Sunday evening in the Serie A.Both teams are chasing a spot in the top four in the league table and, crucially, a place in the Champions League for next season.As such, the game at the San Siro is being billed as a must-see in Italy with fans and former players alike curious to see how the battle between the club’s two Argentine strikers plays out.“It’s the game the city most looks forward to,” Icardi told Sky Italia.Karsdorp reveals he had too much stress at Roma Manuel R. Medina – September 14, 2019 The Dutch defender has been with the Gialorrossi since 2017, but he has not enjoyed his time in the Italian Lega Serie A.“Of course it’s only three points if you win, but the important thing is to play a great game and give consistency to what we’re doing. If we win, we’ll work better in the aftermath.“Milan have great players, with experience and who have been playing in Serie A for a long time.“If I had to choose one I’d say Higuain, because he scores so many goals. He’s what Milan were missing.“I don’t see a rivalry, he’s had a great career and he’s a great striker. We’ll be against each other in the game, but I’m calm and looking to do my best.??”Asked if he can beat Higuain and Cristiano Ronaldo as this season’s top scorer in the Serie A, Icardi replied: “I don’t like to talk about those things at the start of the season, I’ll try to give my contribution and then we’ll see in May.
President Donald Trump announced on Tuesday that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) would roll out a relief plan this fall for farmers hit hard by trade tariffs imposed in recent months.What’s the plan? The plan outlined by the Administration includes three components: Direct payments to farmers to mitigate lower prices resulting from retaliatory tariffs, direct commodity purchases by USDA, and funding for a temporary program similar in purpose to the current Market Access Program (MAP) and Foreign Market Development (FMD) programs. The cost of the package is expected to total around $12 billion spread across multiple commodities, including soybeans.What does ASA say? While soybean growers appreciate the Administration’s recognition that tariffs have caused reduced exports and lower prices, the announced plan provides only short-term assistance. The American Soybean Association (ASA) continues to call for a longer-term strategy to alleviate mounting soybean surpluses and continued low prices, including a plan to remove the harmful tariffs. Read more here.What else are soy leaders doing? Earlier this week, ASA joined a multi-industry letter to the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR), highlighting concerns over the impacts of Section 301 tariffs. Soy leaders across the country were also featured in numerous local and national news stories this week, discussing the need for free trade and open markets.
Driving a beat-up former patrol car, Clark County Deputy Pete Muller accelerated to catch up to the designated suspect vehicle. Matching its speed, Muller positioned his car so that his left front bumper barely touched the other car’s right rear side. Pressing on the Crown Victoria’s gas pedal and turning the wheel sharply, he pushed the suspect’s car into a spin.“It takes a lot of practice to get the sweet spot,” Muller said, amid the odor of burnt rubber.The pursuit immobilization technique, or a PIT stop, is part of annual emergency vehicle operations training conducted by the Vancouver Police Department and the Clark County Sheriff’s Office.Every fall the two agencies take over Portland International Raceway for a few weeks to refresh the driving skills of patrol officers and deputies.Each agency requires its sworn officers to be recertified to perform PIT stops as part of the training.“The idea is to stop a pursuit as fast as we can,” said Vancouver Police Sgt. Tom Ryan.Pursuits, he said, are inherently dangerous, so policy dictates which scenarios are worthy of a police chase and which aren’t.Ryan noted that two other pursuing vehicles stopped ahead of and behind the designated suspect’s car, hemming it in.“You also have to know the post-PIT position,” Ryan explained, “so they don’t start the car up and start it all over again.”While police are commissioned to catch the criminals, Ryan said that in the heat of the moment, officers have to ask themselves: “Is it more dangerous to society to let them go or to continue the pursuit?”
F. Scott Fitzgerald’s great American novel, The Great Gatsby, was just made into an NES-style game. The key part is that the game is playable, for free, right now. If you are a fan of the book you have to try it. If you aren’t, but happen to be a fan of 8-bit games, you’ll like it too… though you should take some time to reconsider your choice of reading materials.You play as Nick Caraway, the book’s protagonist, and you run around the scenes of the book (like Gatsby’s party and the Valley of Ashes) using your bowler hat like a boomerang, taking out waiters, tommygunners, flappers, and other enemies from the era. It’s good, simple fun just as you’d expect from an NES game.AdChoices广告The game even has a little bit of mystery behind it, or at least the developer wanted it to seem that way. If you check out the About page you’ll see that the cartridge was found at a yard sale and it was originally going to be a Japanese game called “Doki Doki Toshokan: Gatsby no Monogatari”. The story goes that the game was never released but he managed to track down a magazine ad from 1990 (below) and part of the instruction manual was with the game.Sure, none of it is true, but nice work on adding some background to complete a cool project.You can play the game here
Due to their wider adoption in academic and industrial settings, the bioreactors require optimized materials and conditions for high throughput fabrication. Conditions include replacing the common prototyping material polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), integrating induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells on a soft biomaterial that facilitates their growth and minimizing the large dead volume caused by microfluidics reservoirs and tubing of organ-on-chips devices.The novel biomaterial prepared in the study contained two main constituents crosslinked via SPAAC; a cycloocytne-modified hyaluronan (HA-BCN) and a multiarmed azide-modified PEG [p(N3)8]. The BCN reacted with azides (N3) on the 8-armed PEG polymer with terminating N3-moieties to form a stable 1,2,3-triazole. Christoffersson et al. completed chemical reactions under physiological conditions to form the hydrogels with tunable viscoelastic properties. The crosslinking strategy was ideal to fabricate hydrogels for 3D cell culture; as the cells could be encapsulated in the biomaterial without compromising their viability and were suitable for use in microfluidic devices. The scientists used excess SPAAC moieties on the novel biomaterial to attach different ligands including RGD peptides to promote interactions at the cell-material interface.Thereafter, the scientists varied the composition of the two main constituents to understand the resulting viscoelastic properties, such as the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) of the hydrogels via oscillatory rheology (technique to measure the viscoelastic behavior of soft materials). They controlled the gelation kinetics of the novel hydrogel at increasing temperatures. Gelation kinetics of the new biomaterial was slow enough for homogenous cell distribution but rapid enough to prevent cell sedimentation. The ability to control gelation kinetics allowed the scientists to consider a variety of biofabrication strategies (e.g. bioprinting) and hydrogel assembly within the microfluidic systems for organ-on-chip applications. (a) Schematic representation of the formation of HA-PEG hydrogels through a strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction. (b) Photograph of a HA-PEG hydrogel after formation. (c) Frequency sweeps of HA-PEG hydrogels with different BCN to N3 ratios. (d) Gelation time experiment showing the increase of G’ over time during gelation of HA-PEG hydrogels (10:1 BCN:N3) at different temperatures. Credit: Biofabrication, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/aaf657 Journal information: Biofabrication , Nature Reviews Drug Discovery Liver-on-a-chip cell culture devices are attractive biomimetic models in drug discovery, toxicology and tissue engineering research. To maintain specific liver cell functions on a chip in the lab, adequate cell types and culture conditions must be met, which includes 3D cell orientation and a consistent supply of nutrients and oxygen. Compared with conventional 2D cell culture techniques, organ-on-a-chip devices offer versatility and effective biomimicry suited for advanced applications in drug discovery and medicine. Researchers create a more effective hydrogel for healing wounds More information: 1. Fabrication of modular hyaluronan-PEG hydrogels to support 3D cultures of hepatocytes in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device iopscience.iop.org/article/10. … 088/1758-5090/aaf657, Jonas Christoffersson et al. 27 December 2018, Biofabrication, IOP Science. 2. Controlling hydrogelation kinetics by peptide design for three-dimensional encapsulation and injectable delivery of cells www.pnas.org/content/104/19/7791 Haines-Butterick L. et al. May 2007, PNAS .3. Microfluidic organs-on-chips www.nature.com/articles/nbt.2989 Bhattia S. N and Ingber D.E. August 2014, Nature Biotechnology.4. Organs-on-chips at the frontiers of drug discovery, www.nature.com/articles/nrd4539 Esch E.W. et al. March 2015, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. , Nature Biotechnology Explore further (a)–(c) Frequency sweeps of (a) agarose, (b) alginate and (c) HA-PEG hydrogels at different concentrations. (d)–(f) SEM micrographs of (d) agarose, (e) alginate and (f) HA-PEG hydrogels showing the morphology of each hydrogel. Credit: Biofabrication, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/aaf657 Structure of a) HA-BCN with a ratio n/m of 0.19 and b) p(N3)8. Credit: Biofabrication, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/aaf657 Christoffersson et al. next compared the HA-PEG hydrogels with the well-established 3D cell culture scaffolds – agarose and alginate hydrogels. In order to determine the final viscoelastic properties suited for 3D cell culture experiments, they used oscillatory rheology to examine the different polymer concentrations. The scientists analyzed the composition of the finalized materials using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images.The liver-on-a-chip design and setup had to meet two key criteria in the study: 1. Allow perfusion (passage of fluid) of cell culture medium across the hydrogel surface for steady nutrient media exchange, to and from the encapsulated hepatocytes. 2. Allow sampling of the perfused media for experimental analysis during ongoing cell culture, without affecting the hepatocytes and the hydrogel. (a) Schematic representation of the liver-on-a-chip device and setup. The device was put on an automatic rocker table to allow perfusion of media and nutrients during cell culture. (b) Depiction of the HepG2 3D cell culture experiments with HA-PEG hydrogels. The HepG2 cells were added to media-suspended p(N3)8 prior addition of HA-BCN. (c) Depiction of the hiPS-HEP 3D cell culture experiments with HA-PEG hydrogels. The hiPS-HEP cells were added to media-suspended p(N3)8 prior addition of HA-BCN. In experiments using either linRGD or cRGD peptide, the HA-BCN was preincubated with 1 μM of corresponding peptide for 1 h prior adding the HA-BCN(RGD) component to the hiPS-HEP/p(N3)8 mixture. Credit: Biofabrication, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/aaf657 Based on the results, the scientists attributed the higher albumin quantity on the 2D HEP coat to the rate of albumin diffusion within hydrogels; transfer across 2D coat being faster than 3D. The higher concentration of albumin with cRGD motif bound hydrogels, correlated with the increased cell growth and viability observed on the cRGD bound biomaterial surfaces. As a result, the scientists intend to use cyclic forms of RGD peptide to assist hepatocyte stem cell culture on hydrogels prepared for liver-on-a-chip devices in the future. In this way, the study detailed the advantages of using hyaluronan-PEG based hydrogel modified with RGD peptides for 3D cultures of hepatocytes (approximating 13 days) in a liver-on-a-chip setup. As benchmarks of the study, Christofferfsson and co-workers used the commonly available alginate and agarose hydrogels. In the future, the scientists will optimize the viscoelastic properties and the concentration of cell adhesion motifs on the HA-PEG hydrogel system for biomimetic cytocompatibility. The optimized hydrogel system can be combined with the device setup to facilitate physiologically relevant liver-on-a-chip platforms for clinical research in drug toxicology, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Citation: 3-D culturing hepatocytes on a liver-on-a-chip device (2019, January 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-d-culturing-hepatocytes-liver-on-a-chip-device.html , Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (a) Viability and morphology of hiPS-HEP cells after 13 days of culture. Cell viability seems to be dependent on the cell’s ability to attach to the surface, the hydrogel, or to each other. Large structures of hiPS-HEPs were formed in HA-PEG(cRGD). (calcein, green), dead cells (ethidium homodimer-1, red), and nuclei (Hoechst 33 342, blue). (b) Z-stack of images obtained by confocal microscopy reveals the flat shape of hiPS-HEPS when cultured on a 2D substrate (left) compared to the 3D constructs of the cells in a HA-PEG(cRGD) hydrogel (right). The colours represent the height above the 3D cell culture device chamber bottom, i.e. the Z-axis, from 0 μm (red) to 40 μm (blue). (c) Albumin produced by hiPS-HEP on HEP Coat in 2D and in the different hydrogels. * indicates that the albumin concentration levels were too low for reliable quantification. Credit: Biofabrication, doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/aaf657 To meet these criteria, the scientists used a commercial 3D cell culture device (μ-Slide III 3D Perfusion IbiTreat) containing two consecutive chambers (2 x 30 µL) in three parallel arrays – each connected to media reservoirs to perfuse liquid. For effective perfusion, they mounted the device on an automatic rocking table by reversing the perfusate direction across the hydrogel-containing chambers. The experimental setup allowed perfusion through the device, fulfilling the first criteria. To fulfill the second criteria, the localized walls adjacent to the hydrogel chambers allowed the scientists to sample the perfusate without interfering the hydrogel or cell constituents. The scientists first investigated biofunctionalization of liver-on-a-chip devices in the study with HEPG2 cells (liver carcinoma cell line) encapsulated in hydrogels, after 3, 7 and 9 days of cell culture. They compared the cell morphology, viability and functionality with agarose and alginate hydrogels. The study included live/dead assays to confirm cell viability and further confirmed HepG2 functionality by detecting albumin and urea secretions in the supernatant of the cell culture. For improved cell functionality (surface attachment and mobility on materials), the scientists grafted cell adhesion motifs such as linear or cyclic RGD peptides (linear linRGD or cyclic cRGD) on to the hydrogels. In this instance, hiPS-HEP cells (hepatocyte stem cells) were cultured across different hydrogel compositions for 13 days to examine the morphology and viability (live/dead staining) after cell-material interactions. The scientists used six different hydrogel-based biomaterial surfaces in the experiments including; 2D (HEP coat), Agarose, Alginate, HA-PEG, HA-PEG (linRGD) and HA-PEG (cRGD). The hiPS-HEP cells encapsulated and cultured in the modified hydrogel grew within 2D and true 3D constructs. To test the functionality of the cultured hiPS-HEP cells (stem cells), the scientists quantified their albumin and urea excretion. The results showed that only the supernatants of stem cells cultured in 2D surfaces and in the presence of the cRGD motif hydrogels secreted albumin. Miniaturized bioreactors known as ‘organ-on-chips’, have recently emerged as alternative cell culture models that better mimic the in vivo biological microenvironment in the lab. The liver is a model of special interest in medical research due to drug hepatotoxicity observed at all phases of clinical drug development. Previous publications detail the use of organ-on-chips to predict the outcome of a drug’s impact in clinical trials and evaluate drug interactions with hepatocytes in the lab. © 2019 Science X Network In a recent study now published on Biofabrication, Jonas Christoffersson and colleagues demonstrated how hydrogels that mimic the extracellular matrix can support the functionality and viability of hepatocytes in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device. The interdisciplinary researchers in the division of biotechnology and molecular physics engineered a hydrogel system based on hyaluronan and poly(ethylene glycol) (HA-PEG) polymers. They developed the hydrogels using click chemistry. To enable the process, the scientists conducted a biorthogonal reaction (chemistry that occurs within living systems without the interference of native biochemical reactions) between a cyclooctyne moiety and alkyne azide-labelled reaction partner, known as strain-promoted alkyne azide cycloaddition (SPAAC).The new hydrogel materials were engineered and characterized in comparison with existing agarose and alginate hydrogels for cell compatibility (cytocompatibility). For biofunctionalization studies, the researchers used human induced-pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes (hiPS-HEPs). To improve surface cytocompatibility of the biomaterial, HA-PEG hydrogels were altered with azide-modified cell adhesion motifs to facilitate effective cell-material attachments. In the surface functionalized biomaterial, the hepatocyte stem cells migrated and grew in 3D orientations, with increased viability. The scientists observed higher albumin production on the novel material (characteristic liver protein), compared to cells cultured on other hydrogels. The flexible, SPAAC crosslinked hydrogel system with perfused 3D cell culture of hiPS-HEPs is a promising material to optimize liver-on-a-chip devices. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Meghan McCain to release audiobook on conservatism, family Sponsored Stories Comments Share News reports, citing unidentified military officials, say the laptop was connected to a main computer on board the boat that contains confidential data about Taiwan’s anti-ship missiles.Opposition lawmakers said they feared the laptop had been stolen by Chinese spies.Lin Yu-fang, a lawmaker with the Legislative Defense Committee, said he was told that the missing laptop did not contain “crucial” military secrets, but it indicated a security loophole that could undermine the island’s defenses against a possible Chinese attack.Taiwan and China have conducted espionage against each other since they split amid civil war in 1949.Relations between the two sides have warmed in recent years. However, China still claims the self-ruled island as part of its territory and has refused to renounce the use of force to put the island under its fold.(Copyright 2012 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.) Top Stories More Valley freeways to be closed this weekend for improvements Top holiday drink recipes New high school in Mesa lets students pick career paths TAIPEI, Taiwan (AP) – Taiwan’s military said Monday it is investigating how a laptop went missing from a guided-missile ship, with opposition lawmakers pointing the finger at Chinese spies.Defense Ministry spokesman David Lo said the laptop went missing two weeks ago from the stealth ship docked at a navy port.The ship, Kuanghua 6, is among a fleet of ships with stealth technology that Taiwan built in the last decade to carry out swift attacks against Chinese warships in the case of an invasion from the mainland. Early signs of cataracts in your parents and how to help Think Tank analyzes the second round of Democratic debates 4 ways to protect your company from cyber breaches
Source = Te Manava Luxury Villas & Spa There’s positive, upbeat news for the Asia Pacific’s hospitality industry this week as the results of the Asia Pacific Hotel Awards 2011 in association with Bloomberg Television and Google have been revealed. Rightly proud of its success, Te Manava Luxury Villas & Spa (managed by Pacific Resort Hotel Group – Cook Islands) is delighted to announce that it has won an award in the category of “Best New Small Hotel – Design & Construction”. Winners have been invited to attend a high profile gala dinner at the Longemont Hotel Shanghai on May 31st where they were presented with their awards.The event is part of the International Property Awards, the world’s most prestigious competition dedicated to finding the best hotel properties from across the globe. The fact that Te Manava Luxury Villas & Spa has won one of these coveted awards is proof that the Cook Islands is not only able to compete at this level but also triumph within the highly competitive Asia Pacific property arena.Later this year, top scoring winners from the Asia Pacific Property Awards will compete against other winning companies from Europe, the UK, Europe, the Americas and Arabia to find the ultimate World’s Best in each category. The judging panel is chaired by Anthony Murkett, managing director of The Sloane Club in London and consists of 20 professionals whose collective knowledge of the hospitality industry is second to none. This year’s judges include James Bacon, UK account manager of Google; Peter Crome, managing director of Skibo Castle in Scotland; Mike McNamara of the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS); David Dalby of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) and Rebecca Johnson of Bloomberg TV (Hotel Section). Greg Stanaway, chief executive officer of Pacific Resort Hotel Group, welcomed the award as a testament to Pacific Resort Hotel Groups’ focus on quality and design, “This is a great honor for us, and reinforcing our path to being recognized internationally as a quality-focused property manager and developer.”